Khaled Barkaoui

Associate Professor

Ph.D. in Second Language Education - OISE, University of Toronto , Canada; MA in Linguistics - Faculté des Lettres, University of Manouba, Tunisia; BA in English Language and Literature - Faculté des Lettres et des Sciences Humaines et Sociales, University of Tunis, Tunisia

Location(s) / Contact Info:

253, Winters College - WC
Keele Campus
Phone: 416-736-2100 Ext. 33209

Email: barkaoui@yorku.ca

Available to supervise graduate students
Currently taking on work-study students, Graduate Assistants or Volunteers
Available to supervise undergraduate thesis projects

Biography

Khaled Barkaoui is an Associate Professor in the Faculty of Education, York University. He obtained an MA in Linguistics from the University of Manouba, Tunisia, and a PhD in Second Language Education from OISE of the University of Toronto. He was Fulbright Visiting Scholar, in 2002-2003, at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign where he did research on second language writing assessment. Khaled has authored several articles and presented numerous national and international conference papers about second language assessment and writing. He is member of the editorial board for Language Assessment Quarterly. He received the TOEFL Outstanding Young Scholar Award for 2012.

Scholarly Interests

Assessment in education, second language (L2) assessment, learning and teaching of L2 writing in academic settings, assessment validation, teachers’ conceptions of assessment of L2 writing, instrument development and validation, program evaluation, longitudinal research, mixed-methods research, applications of measurement and statistical models in educational research and assessment, L2 learning, and English for academic purposes (EAP)

Faculty & School/Dept

  • Faculty of Education - Graduate Studies

Courses Taught

  • Classroom Assessment (ED/EDUC 3750)
  • Mixed-Methods Research in Education (GS/EDUC 5216)
  • Research Methods in Educational Studies (ED/EDST 3800)
  • Second Language Assessment (GS/LAL 6200)

Selected Publications

  • Barkaoui, K. & Hadidi A. (2021). Assessing changes in second Language writing performance. Routledge
  • Lira-Gonzales, M. L., Valeo, A. & Barkaoui, K. (2021). FFL Teachers' beliefs and practice about written corrective feedback: A case study in a French as a Foreign Language Program.. Language Teaching Research Quarterly, 25, 5-28.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2021). Exploring second language learners' writing processes and texts when writing to different audiences. Canadian Modern Language Review, 77, 234-268.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2021). Evaluating tests of second language development. Peter Lang
  • Woodworth, J. & Barkaoui, K. (2020). Perspectives on using automated writing evaluation systems to provide written corrective feedback in the ESL classroom. TESL Canada Journal, 37, 234-247.
  • Barkaoui, K. & In'nami, Y. (2020). Using multilevel modeling to examine changes in second language test scores over time.. In V. Aryadoust &M. Raquel (Eds.), Data Analysis Methods for Language Assessment. New York: Routledge
  • Riazi, M., Shi, L., & Barkaoui, K. (Eds.). (2020). Studies and Essays on Learning, Teaching and Assessing Second Language Writing in Honour of Alister Cumming. (Riazi, M., Shi, L., & Barkaoui, K. , Eds.) Cambridge Scholars Publishing
  • Rezaei, A. & Barkaoui, K. (2020). Peer and teacher assessment of L2 writing in high- and low-stakes conditions. International Journal of Applied Linguistics.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2019). What can L2 Writers' Pausing Behavior Tell Us about Their L2 Writing Processes? . Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 41 (3), 529-554.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2019). Examining sources of variability in repeaters' L2 writing scores: The case of PTE-Academic writing section. Language Testing, 36 (1), 3-25.
  • Barkaoui, K. & Knouzi, I. (2018). The effects of writing mode and computer ability on L2 test-takers' essay characteristics and scores. Assessing Writing, 36, 19-31.
  • Barkaoui, K (2017). Examining repeaters' performance on L2 proficiency tests: A review and a call for research. Language Assessment Quarterly , 14 (4), 420-431.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2016). What and when second-language learners revise when responding to timed writing tasks on the computer: The roles of task type, second language proficiency, and keyboarding skills.. The Modern Language Review, (100(1)).
  • Barkaoui, K. (2016) What changes and what doesn't? An examination of changes in the linguistic characteristics of IELTS repeaters' Writing Task 2 scripts..
  • Barkaoui, K., Barrett, S., Samaroo, J., Dahya, N., Alidina, S., & James, C. (2015). Teachers' conceptions of student engagement in learning: The case of three urban schools.. Alberta Journal of Educational Research (61(1)), 80-99..
  • Barkaoui, K. (2015) Test-takers' writing activities during TOEFL-iBT writing tasks: A stimulated recall study.. Princeton. New Jersey
  • Barkaoui, K. (2015). The characteristics of the Michigan English Test (MET) reading texts and their relationship to item difficulty. . CaMLA Working Papers, (2015-02).
  • Barkaoui, K. (2014). Quantitative approaches to analyzing longitudinal data in second-language research.. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 34.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2014). Examining the impact of L2 proficiency and keyboarding skills on scores on TOEFL iBT writing tasks.. Language Testing, 31 (2). doi:241-259.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2013). An introduction to multilevel modeling in language assessment research. Language Assessment Quarterly, 10 (3). doi:241-273.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2013). An introduction to multi-faceted Rasch models. In Kunnan, A. (Ed.), The companion to language assessment (pp. 1301-1322). Wiley-Blackwell
  • Barkaoui, K., Brooks, L., Swain, M., & Lapkin, S. (2013). Test-takers' strategic behaviors in independent and integrated speaking tasks Applied Linguistics, 34 (3), 304-324.
  • Barkaoui, K. & Knouzi, I. (2012). Combining score and text analyses to examine task equivalence in writing assessment. In Van Steendam, E., Tillema, M., Rijlaarsdam, G., & van den Bergh, H. (Eds.), Measuring writing: Recent insights into theory, methodology and practices (Vol. volume 23 of Studies in Writing, pp. 83-116). AmsterdamElsevier
  • Barkaoui, K. (2011). Think-aloud protocols in research on essay rating: An empirical study of their veridicality and reactivity. Language Testing, 28 (1), 51-75.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2011). Effects of marking method and rater experience on ESL essay scores. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 18 (3), 277-291.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2010). Variability in ESL essay rating processes: The role of rating scale and rater experience. Language Assessment Quarterly , 7 (1), 54-74.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2010). Explaining ESL essay holistic scores: A multilevel modeling approach. Language Testing, 27 (4), 515-535.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2010). Do ESL essay raters' evaluation criteria change with experience? A mixed-methods cross-sectional study. TESOL Quarterly, 44 (1), 31-7.
  • Spada, N., Barkaoui, K., Peters, C., So, M., & Valeo, A. (2009). Developing a questionnaire to investigate second-language learners' preferences for two types of form-focused instruction. System , 37 (1), 70-81.
  • Barkaoui, K., So, M., & Suzuki, W. (2008). Is it relevant? The role of off-task talk in collaborative learning. Journal of Applied Linguistics, 5 (1), 31-54.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2007). Teaching writing to second language learners: Some insights from theory and research. TESL Reporter , 40 (1), 35-48.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2007). Revision in second language writing: What teachers need to know. TESL Canada Journal, 25 (1), 81-92.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2007). Participants, texts, and processes in second language writing assessment: A narrative review of the literature. The Canadian Modern Language Review , 64 (1), 97-132.
  • Ross, J., A., Barkaoui, K., & Scott, G. (2007). Evaluations that consider the cost of educational programs: The contribution of high-quality studies. American Journal of Evaluation, 28 (4), 477-492.
  • Cook, B., Luke, J., Valoe, A., & Barkaoui, K. Institutional Language Policy and ESL Teachers' Conceptions of L2 Writing and Classroom Assessment Practices. Canadian Modern Language Review, 77, 93-109.

Selected Presentations

  • Barkaoui, K; Neumann, H & Van Viegen, S. (2022, March). Examining the Extrapolation Inference of the Duolingo Test of English at Two Canadian Universities. Presented at: the 43rd Language Testing Research Colloquium
  • Valeo, A., Barkaoui, K. & Cook, B. (2021, June). ‘Good writing is like a formula”: Teachers’ Metaphors of Writing Quality and their Implications for Teacher L2 Writing Assessment Practices. Presented at: the 4end Language Testing Research Colloquium
  • Knouzi, I.& Barkaoui, K. (2019, June). Assessing L2 Pragmatics through Writing: Challenges and Affordances. Presented at: PRELA2019 (Professionals and Research in Applied Linguistics), Lyon, France
  • Barkaoui, K. and A. Valeo (2016, October). What do ESL Teachers Consider when Designing and Selecting Tasks to Assess Students' L2 Writing? . Presented at: Paper presented at the Symposium of Second Language Writing 2016, Arizona State University
  • Barkaoui, K. (2016, October). Changes in the Linguistic and Discourse Characteristics of the Texts of L2 Learners when Repeating a L2 Writing Test.. Presented at: Paper presented at the Symposium of Second Language Writing 2016, Arizona State University
  • Barkaoui, K. and A. Valeo (2016, July). Teachers’ Awareness of their Use of Feedback in L2 Writing: Case studies in ESL Classrooms.. Presented at: Paper presented with A. Valeo at the Annual meeting of the Association of Language Awareness, Vienna, Austria
  • Barkaoui, K. and A. Valeo (2016, July). Case studies of ESL teachers' practices and beliefs about L2 writing assessment.. Presented at: Paper presented at the Fourth European Conference on Language Learning (ECLL2016), Brighton, UK.
  • Barkaoui, K. and A. Valeo (2016, May). Case studies of teachers’ use of assessment to support the learning of L2 writing in the ESL classroom. Presented at: Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Canadian Association of Applied Linguistics (CAAL), Calgary, AB.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2014, September 4). L2 learners’ cognitive and metacognitive strategies when writing on the computer.. Presented at: Annual meeting of the EARLI SIG 16: Metacognitive Conference, Istanbul, Turkey.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2013, March 17). Revising on a computer-based L2 writing test: What and when? . Presented at: Annual meeting of the American Association of Applied Linguistics (AAAL), Dallas, TX.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2012). Effects of keyboarding skills on performance on a computer-based L2 writing test. Presented at: EARLI SIG 1: Assessment and Evaluation Conference, Brussels, Belgium

Other Research Outputs

 

Barkaoui, K; Neumann, H & Van Viegen, S. (2022). Examining the Extrapolation Inference of the Duolingo Test of English at Two Canadian Universities. Report submitted to Duolingo.

Barkaoui, K. (2022). Investigating Variability in the Linguistic Characteristics of Duolingo Scripts across Score Levels, Task Types, and Test Occasions. Report submitted to Duolingo.

Barkaoui, K. (2021). Examining Test-Takers' Texts and Writing Processes when Responding to CAEL CE Academic Unit A. Report submitted to Paragon Testing.

Barkaoui, K., Woodworth, J., Holliday, A., & Valeo, A. (2016). A Review of the York English Language Test (YELT). Report submitted to the ESL Coordinating Committee  and the office of the provost, York University.

James, C., Barrett, S., Barkaoui, K, & Ford, D. (2013). Final Report for the School and Community Engaged Education (SCEE) Project. Report submitted to TDSB.

Barkaoui, K., Stewart, G., & Strachan, A. (2012). Language assessment for physiotherapists and occupational therapists (LAPOT): Report on evidence of validity. Technical report submitted to the Canadian Alliance of Physiotherapy Regulators, Ontario.

Barkaoui, K. & Dziwak, K. (2010a). ACCUPLACER Reading Comprehension Test: Pilot Data Analysis Report. Technical report submitted to Assessment Services, ERES, George Brown College.

Barkaoui, K. & Dziwak, K. (2010b). Integration of ACCUPLACER Reading Comprehension Test into the George Brown College Admission/Placement English Assessment: A Report on Standard Setting Process and Results. Technical report submitted to Assessment Services, ERES, George Brown College.

Barkaoui, K. & Strachan, A. (2009b). Setting language proficiency standards on TOEFL, IELTS and MELA for internationally-educated medical laboratory technologists in Ontario. Technical report submitted to the Canadian Society of Medical Laboratory Technologists (CSMLS).

Barkaoui, K. & Strachan, A. (2009a). Setting language proficiency standards on TOEFL, IELTS and MELA for internationally-educated medical radiation technologists in Ontario. Technical report submitted to College of Medical Radiation Technologists of Ontario (CMRTO).

Lapkin, S. & Barkaoui, K. (2008). Teaching core French in Ontario: Teachers’ perspectives. Report submitted to the Ontario Ministry of Education.

Ross, J., A., Scott, G., & Barkaoui, K. (2005). Review of value-for-money evaluation research. Report submitted to the Ontario Ministry of Education and Training.

Weir, C., Daoud, M. Oueslati, Z., Athimni, M., & Barkaoui, K. (1999). Evaluation of the ESP Project in Tunisia. Report submitted to the British Council, Tunis, Tunisia.

Research Projects

Investigating Variability in the Linguistic Characteristics of Duolingo Scripts across Score Levels, Task Types, and Test Occasions

Role: Principal Investigator

Year Funded: 2021

Funded by: Duolingo

Examining the Extrapolation Inference of the Duolingo English Test of English at Two Canadian Universities

Role: Principal Investigator

Year Funded: 2021

Funded by: Duolingo

A Longitudinal Study of the Relationship between Undergraduate Modes of Entry and Academic Performance at York University

Role: Principal Investigator

Year Funded: 2020

Funded by: York University

Examining Test-Takers' Texts and Writing Processes when Responding to CAEL CE Academic Unit A

Role: Principal Investigator

Year Funded: 2019

Funded by: Paragon Testing

Changes in the Linguistic Characteristics of L2 Learners’ Responses to TOEFL iBT Writing Tasks After a Period of English Language Instruction

Role: Principal Investigator

Year Funded: 2016

Funded by: Educational Testing Service

Writing Assessment in the ESL Classroom: Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices

Role: Principal Investigator

Year Funded: 2014

Funded by: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC)

What Changes and What Doesn't? An Examination of the Linguistic Characteristics of the Scripts of Repeaters of IELTS Writing Task Two

Role: Principal Investigator

Year Funded: 2014

Funded by: British Council

An Investigation of the Impact of Computer Skills on Test-Takers’ Writing Processes and Scores in the TOEFL iBT Writing Section

Role: Principal Investigator

Year Funded: 2010

Funded by: Educational Testing Service

Awards

  • TOEFL Outstanding Young Scholar Award, TOEFL, Education testing Service - 2012

Professional Affiliations

  • International Language Testing Association (ILTA): Member; Member of ILTA's 2013 Nominating Committee
  • Canadian Association for Applied Linguistics (ACLA): Member
  • Canadian Association of Language Assessment (CALA) : Member

York University Affiliations/Cross Appointments

  • Centre for Research on Language Contact (CRLC)