Khaled Barkaoui

Associate Professor

Ph.D. in Second Language Education - OISE, University of Toronto , Canada; MA in Linguistics - Faculté des Lettres, University of Manouba, Tunisia; BA in English Language and Literature - Faculté des Lettres et des Sciences Humaines et Sociales, University of Tunis, Tunisia

Location(s) / Contact Info:

253, Winters College - WC
Keele Campus
Phone: 416-736-2100 Ext. 33209



Khaled Barkaoui is an Associate Professor in the Faculty of Education, York University. He obtained an MA in Linguistics from the University of Manouba, Tunisia, and a PhD in Second Language Education from OISE of the University of Toronto. He was Fulbright Visiting Scholar, in 2002-2003, at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign where he did research on second language writing assessment. Khaled has authored several articles and presented numerous national and international conference papers about second language assessment and writing. He is member of the editorial board for Language Assessment Quarterly. He received the TOEFL Outstanding Young Scholar Award for 2012.

Scholarly Interests

Assessment in education, second language (L2) assessment, learning and teaching of L2 writing in academic settings, assessment validation, teachers’ conceptions of assessment of L2 writing, instrument development and validation, program evaluation, longitudinal research, mixed-methods research, applications of measurement and statistical models in educational research and assessment, L2 learning, and English for academic purposes (EAP)

Faculty & School/Dept

  • Faculty of Education - Graduate Studies

Courses Taught

  • Assessment in the Junior-Intermediate-Senior Division (ED/EDUC 3752)
  • Educational Assessment (ED/EDUC 3750)
  • Mixed-Methods Research in Education (GS/EDUC 5216)
  • Reading and Writing in a Second Language: Theory to Practice (GS/LAL 6230)
  • Second Language Assessment (GS/LAL 6200)
  • Teaching English Language Learners in Mainstream Classrooms (ED/EDUC 3820)

Selected Publications

  • Barkaoui, K. (2016) What changes and what doesn't? An examination of changes in the linguistic characteristics of IELTS repeaters' Writing Task 2 scripts..
  • Barkaoui, K. (2016). What and when second-language learners revise when responding to timed writing tasks on the computer: The roles of task type, second language proficiency, and keyboarding skills.. The Modern Language Review, (100(1)).
  • Barkaoui, K., Barrett, S., Samaroo, J., Dahya, N., Alidina, S., & James, C. (2015). Teachers' conceptions of student engagement in learning: The case of three urban schools.. Alberta Journal of Educational Research (61(1)), 80-99..
  • Barkaoui, K. (2015). The characteristics of the Michigan English Test (MET) reading texts and their relationship to item difficulty. . CaMLA Working Papers, (2015-02).
  • Barkaoui, K. (2015) Test-takers' writing activities during TOEFL-iBT writing tasks: A stimulated recall study.. Princeton. New Jersey
  • Barkaoui, K. (2014). Quantitative approaches to analyzing longitudinal data in second-language research.. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 34.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2014). Examining the impact of L2 proficiency and keyboarding skills on scores on TOEFL iBT writing tasks.. Language Testing, 31 (2). doi:241-259.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2013). An introduction to multi-faceted Rasch models. In Kunnan, A. (Ed.), The companion to language assessment (pp. 1301-1322). Wiley-Blackwell
  • Barkaoui, K. (2013). An introduction to multilevel modeling in language assessment research. Language Assessment Quarterly, 10 (3). doi:241-273.
  • Barkaoui, K., Brooks, L., Swain, M., & Lapkin, S. (2013). Test-takers' strategic behaviors in independent and integrated speaking tasks. Applied Linguistics, 34 (3), 304-324.
  • Barkaoui, K. & Knouzi, I. (2012). Combining score and text analyses to examine task equivalence in writing assessment. In Van Steendam, E., Tillema, M., Rijlaarsdam, G., & van den Bergh, H. (Eds.), Measuring writing: Recent insights into theory, methodology and practices (Vol. volume 23 of Studies in Writing, pp. 83-116). AmsterdamElsevier
  • Barkaoui, K. (2011). Effects of marking method and rater experience on ESL essay scores. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 18 (3), 277-291.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2011). Think-aloud protocols in research on essay rating: An empirical study of their veridicality and reactivity. Language Testing, 28 (1), 51-75.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2010). Variability in ESL essay rating processes: The role of rating scale and rater experience. Language Assessment Quarterly , 7 (1), 54-74.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2010). Explaining ESL essay holistic scores: A multilevel modeling approach. Language Testing, 27 (4), 515-535.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2010). Do ESL essay raters' evaluation criteria change with experience? A mixed-methods cross-sectional study. TESOL Quarterly, 44 (1), 31-7.
  • Spada, N., Barkaoui, K., Peters, C., So, M., & Valeo, A. (2009). Developing a questionnaire to investigate second-language learners' preferences for two types of form-focused instruction. System , 37 (1), 70-81.
  • Barkaoui, K., So, M., & Suzuki, W. (2008). Is it relevant? The role of off-task talk in collaborative learning. Journal of Applied Linguistics, 5 (1), 31-54.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2007). Teaching writing to second language learners: Some insights from theory and research. TESL Reporter , 40 (1), 35-48.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2007). Participants, texts, and processes in second language writing assessment: A narrative review of the literature. The Canadian Modern Language Review , 64 (1), 97-132.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2007). Revision in second language writing: What teachers need to know. TESL Canada Journal, 25 (1), 81-92.
  • Ross, J., A., Barkaoui, K., & Scott, G. (2007). Evaluations that consider the cost of educational programs: The contribution of high-quality studies. American Journal of Evaluation, 28 (4), 477-492.

Selected Presentations

  • Barkaoui, K. and A. Valeo (2016, October). What do ESL Teachers Consider when Designing and Selecting Tasks to Assess Students' L2 Writing? . Presented at: Paper presented at the Symposium of Second Language Writing 2016, Arizona State University
  • Barkaoui, K. (2016, October). Changes in the Linguistic and Discourse Characteristics of the Texts of L2 Learners when Repeating a L2 Writing Test.. Presented at: Paper presented at the Symposium of Second Language Writing 2016, Arizona State University
  • Barkaoui, K. and A. Valeo (2016, July). Case studies of ESL teachers' practices and beliefs about L2 writing assessment.. Presented at: Paper presented at the Fourth European Conference on Language Learning (ECLL2016), Brighton, UK.
  • Barkaoui, K. and A. Valeo (2016, July). Teachers’ Awareness of their Use of Feedback in L2 Writing: Case studies in ESL Classrooms.. Presented at: Paper presented with A. Valeo at the Annual meeting of the Association of Language Awareness, Vienna, Austria
  • Barkaoui, K. and A. Valeo (2016, May). Case studies of teachers’ use of assessment to support the learning of L2 writing in the ESL classroom. Presented at: Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Canadian Association of Applied Linguistics (CAAL), Calgary, AB.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2014, September 4). L2 learners’ cognitive and metacognitive strategies when writing on the computer.. Presented at: Annual meeting of the EARLI SIG 16: Metacognitive Conference, Istanbul, Turkey.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2013, March 17). Revising on a computer-based L2 writing test: What and when? . Presented at: Annual meeting of the American Association of Applied Linguistics (AAAL), Dallas, TX.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2012). Effects of keyboarding skills on performance on a computer-based L2 writing test. Presented at: EARLI SIG 1: Assessment and Evaluation Conference, Brussels, Belgium

Research Projects

The assessment conceptions and practices of ESL writing teachers: A cross-sectional study of their characteristics and development

Role: Principal Investigator

Year Funded: 2009

Funded by: Small SSHRC Grant, York University

An Investigation of the Impact of Computer Skills on Test-Takers’ Writing Processes and Scores in the TOEFL iBT Writing Section

Role: Principal Investigator

Year Funded: 2009

Duration: 3 years

Funded by: TOEFL Committee of Examiners (COE), ETS, USA

Writing Assessment in the ESL Classroom: Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices

Role: Principal Investigator

Year Funded: 2014

Duration: 5

Funded by: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC)

This mixed-methods study combines a cross-sectional and a retrospective longitudinal approach to investigate and compare the characteristics and development of the writing assessment beliefs and practices of ESL teachers in three language teaching contexts for adults: immigrant settlement programs, university academic preparation programs, and undergraduate credit-bearing ESL programs.

Professional Affiliations

  • International Language Testing Association (ILTA): Member; Member of ILTA's 2013 Nominating Committee
  • Canadian Educational Research Association (CERA): Member
  • American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL): Member
  • Canadian Association for Applied Linguistics (ACLA): Member
  • Canadian Association of Language Assessment (CALA) : Member

York University Affiliations/Cross Appointments

  • Centre for Research on Language Contact (CRLC)
  • York Centre for Education and Community (YCEC)